Christmas – Wikipedia


Nativity scene depicted the usage of Christmas lightsAlso calledNoël, Nativity, XmasObserved byChristians, many non-Christians[1][2]TypeChristian, culturalSignificanceCommemoration of the nativity of JesusCelebrationsGift-giving, family and other social gatherings, symbolic ornament, feasting and many others.ObservancesChurch servicesDateDecember 25(Western Christianity and part of the Eastern church buildings)January 7 (O.S. Dec. 25)(Most Oriental Orthodox and a part of the Eastern Orthodox churches)January 6(Armenian Apostolic Church and the Armenian Evangelical Church)January 19 (O.S. Jan. 6)(Armenian Patriarchate of Jerusalem)FrequencyAnnualRelated toChristmastide, Christmas Eve, Advent, Annunciation, Epiphany, Baptism of the Lord, Nativity Fast, Nativity of Christ, Old Christmas, Yule, St. Stephen’s Day, Boxing Day

Christmas is an annual competition commemorating the delivery of Jesus Christ, determined primarily on December 25[a] as a non secular and cultural celebration among billions of humans round the arena.[2][3][four] A feast important to the Christian liturgical yr, it’s miles preceded by means of the season of Advent or the Nativity Fast and initiates the season of Christmastide, which traditionally inside the West lasts twelve days and culminates on Twelfth Night.[5] Christmas Day is a public holiday in many nations,[6][7][8] is celebrated religiously with the aid of a majority of Christians,[nine] as well as culturally by using many non-Christians,[1][10] and bureaucracy an integral a part of the vacation season prepared around it.

The traditional Christmas narrative acknowledged inside the New Testament, called the Nativity of Jesus, says that Jesus become born in Bethlehem, according with messianic prophecies.[eleven] When Joseph and Mary arrived within the city, the hotel had no room and so that they have been offered a stable wherein the Christ Child changed into soon born, with angels proclaiming this information to shepherds who then spread the word.[12]

There are extraordinary hypotheses regarding the date of Jesus’ start and in the early fourth century, the church fixed the date as December 25.[b][13][14][15] This corresponds to the traditional date of the winter solstice on the Roman calendar.[16] It is precisely 9 months after Annunciation on March 25, also the date of the spring equinox. Most Christians rejoice on December 25 in the Gregorian calendar, which has been followed nearly universally in the civil calendars used in international locations during the world. However, a part of the Eastern Christian Churches have fun Christmas on December 25 of the older Julian calendar, which presently corresponds to January 7 in the Gregorian calendar. For Christians, believing that God came into the world in the form of man to catch up on the sins of humanity, in preference to knowing Jesus’ exact start date, is taken into consideration to be the number one purpose in celebrating Christmas.[17][18][19]

The celebratory customs related in numerous international locations with Christmas have a mixture of pre-Christian, Christian, and secular topics and origins.[20] Popular modern-day customs of the vacation encompass gift giving; finishing an Advent calendar or Advent wreath; Christmas tune and caroling; viewing a Nativity play; an trade of Christmas playing cards; church offerings; a unique meal; and the display of various Christmas decorations, which include Christmas bushes, Christmas lighting fixtures, nativity scenes, garlands, wreaths, mistletoe, and holly. In addition, several carefully related and often interchangeable figures, referred to as Santa Claus, Father Christmas, Saint Nicholas, and Christkind, are related to bringing gifts to children for the duration of the Christmas season and feature their personal frame of traditions and lore.[21] Because gift-giving and many other aspects of the Christmas pageant involve heightened monetary pastime, the holiday has turn out to be a big occasion and a key income period for stores and agencies. Over the past few centuries, Christmas has had a regularly developing financial effect in lots of regions of the sector.Etymology

The English phrase “Christmas” is a shortened shape of “Christ’s Mass”. The word is recorded as Crīstesmæsse in 1038 and Cristes-messe in 1131.[22] Crīst (genitive Crīstes) is from Greek Khrīstos (Χριστός), a translation of Hebrew Māšîaḥ (מָשִׁיחַ), “Messiah”, meaning “anointed”;[23][24] and mæsse is from Latin missa, the party of the Eucharist.[25]

The shape Christenmas was extensively utilized at some stage in a few intervals, but is now taken into consideration archaic and dialectal.[26] The term derives from Middle English Cristenmasse, which means “Christian mass”.[27] Xmas is an abbreviation of Christmas determined especially in print, based on the preliminary letter chi (Χ) in Greek Khrīstos (Χριστός) (“Christ”), although severa style guides discourage its use.[28] This abbreviation has precedent in Middle English Χρ̄es masse (where “Χρ̄” is an abbreviation for Χριστός).[27]Other names

In addition to “Christmas”, the vacation has had diverse other English names at some stage in its records. The Anglo-Saxons cited the ceremonial dinner as “midwinter”,[29][30] or, more rarely, as Nātiuiteð (from Latin nātīvitās beneath).[29][31] “Nativity”, meaning “start”, is from Latin nātīvitās.[32] In Old English, Gēola (Yule) noted the period similar to December and January, which was sooner or later equated with Christian Christmas.[33] “Noel” (also “Nowel” or “Nowell”, as in “The First Nowell”) entered English within the late 14th century and is from the Old French noël or naël, itself in the long run from the Latin nātālis (diēs) meaning “beginning (day)”.[34]Nativity

The gospels of Luke and Matthew describe Jesus as being born in Bethlehem to the Virgin Mary. In the e-book of Luke, Joseph and Mary traveled from Nazareth to Bethlehem for the census, and Jesus became born there and placed in a manger.[35] Angels proclaimed him a savior for every person, and shepherds came to adore him. The ebook of Matthew provides that the magi followed a celebrity to Bethlehem to convey gifts to Jesus, born the king of the Jews. King Herod ordered the massacre of all the boys much less than two years vintage in Bethlehem, however the circle of relatives fled to Egypt and later again to Nazareth.[36]History

The nativity sequences covered inside the Gospels of Matthew and Luke caused early Christian writers to signify diverse dates for the anniversary.[37] Although no date is indicated inside the gospels, early Christians linked Jesus to the Sun via the use of such phrases as “Sun of righteousness.”[37][38] The Romans marked the winter solstice on December 25.[sixteen] The first recorded Christmas party become in Rome on December 25, AD 336.[39] In the 3rd century, the date of the nativity turned into the difficulty of first-rate hobby. Around AD 200, Clement of Alexandria wrote:

There are those who have determined not best the 12 months of our Lord’s start, however also the day; and they say that it took place within the twenty eighth 12 months of Augustus, and within the twenty fifth day of [the Egyptian month] Pachon [May 20] … Further, others say that He turned into born at the twenty fourth or twenty fifth of Pharmuthi [April 20 or 21].[forty]

Various factors contributed to the choice of December 25 as a date of party: it became the date of the iciness solstice at the Roman calendar and it was nine months after March 25, the date of the vernal equinox and a date linked to the concept of Jesus (celebrated as the Feast of the Annunciation).[41]

Christmas performed a function within the Arian controversy of the fourth century. After this controversy ran its path, the prominence of the vacation declined for a few centuries. The dinner party regained prominence after 800 when Charlemagne turned into crowned emperor on Christmas Day.

In Puritan England, Christmas turned into banned, with Puritans thinking about it a Catholic invention and additionally associating the day with drunkenness and different misbehaviour.[forty two] It was restored as a legal vacation in England in 1660 whilst Puritan law become declared null and void, but it remained disreputable within the minds of a few.[43] In the early nineteenth century, Christmas festivities and offerings became considerable with the upward thrust of the Oxford Movement within the Church of England that emphasised the centrality of Christmas in Christianity and charity to the terrible,[44] at the side of Washington Irving, Charles Dickens, and different authors emphasizing circle of relatives, kids, kind-heartedness, present-giving, and Santa Claus (for Irving),[44] or Father Christmas (for Dickens).[45]Introduction